УДК 550.47:550.424 • Issue 5 (33) / 2021 • 55-70 pages

О. Orlov

О. Orlov, PhD. State Institution «The Institute of Environmental Geochemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine», ORCID: 0000-0003-2923-5324orlov.botany@gmail.com


The review presents the analysis of publications dedicated to problems of using of Bryobionta representatives for bryogeochemical indication and biomonitoring of heavy metals and radionuclides in the environment. Taxonomic structure of Bryobionta is briefly observed, three divisions of Bryobionta are elucidated – Anthocerotophyta, Marchantiophyta and Bryophyta. It is concluded that the most suitable moss species for biomonitoring of heavy metals and radionuclides are representatives from division Bryophyta, such as Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Hypnum cupressiforme, Scleropodium purum. The mosses have been successfully used in biomonitoring of atmospheric fallout of heavy metals in the environment in Europe for 25 years. A special system of monitoring on their basis is applied in 28 countries of the continent. For the most important moss species used as test-objects of biomonitoring, significant width of their geographic distribution is shown as well as distribution on different substrates of growth (epigeious, epiphytic, epilytic). The main biological peculiarities of mosses which allow to use them for purposes of biomonitoring of heavy metals and radionuclides have been analyzed, i.e. absence of roots, that permits them to derive the main part of nutrients (and pollutants) directly from aerial fallouts – dry (dust) and wet (rain, snow), and high cation exchange capacity of their cell membranes. The most important anatomical and morphological features of three moss groups (endohydritic, ectohydritic, mixohydritic) are briefly reported, and a conclusion about the best suitability of ectohydritic moss species for bryogeochemical indication and biomonitoring of pollutants is made. Results of numerous biomonitoring studies conducted with using of widely distributed moss species in Europe in nature and anthropogenic biogeocenoses are demonstrated. Criteria to mosses as test-objects of bryogeochemical indication and biomonitoring are briefly reported. Physiological adaptations of mosses to stress emerging due to intake of significant concentrations of heavy metals to their phytomass are generalized. Requirements to sampling of moss cover for purposes of bryogeochemical indication and biomonitoring of pollutants are reported. Perspective moss species as test-objects of environmental pollution by heavy metals and radionuclides are proposed for different natural zones of Ukraine: for Polissya zone – Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi, for Forest-Steppe zone – Hypnum cupressiforme, for Steppe zone – Tortula muralis and Bryum argenteum.

Key words: pollution, biomonitoring, bryogeochemical indication, mosses, test-objects, heavy metals, radionuclides.



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