УДК 51:550.47:574.4:614.7:608:631.438:632.118.3:636 • Issue 6 (34) / 2021 • 5-17 pages
O.Kopylenko, A. Nosovskii, V.Dolin
The article presents the critical analysis of the key problems and the reasons for slow pace of elimination of the consequences of the Chornobyl Catastrophe that are related to the inefficiency of the public administration. During 35 years passed since the Chornobyl Catastrophe, no state strategy for gradual, step by step, elimination of the consequences has been developed. Neither the criteria for its completion have been worked out. Due to the changes in the radioactive contamination structure, accumulation of new knowledge in the field of radiation medicine, agricultural radiology, radiobiology, radiogeochemistry, and radioecology, it is urgent to revise the conceptual provisions of the Chornobyl laws and policy documents, which are mostly based on the 30 year old data. One of the burning unsolved problems of radiation safety is the technological foundations for fuel-containing material management during demolishing of the unstable constructions of the “Shelter” object, the volume of which exceeds 15 tons (UO2) with total activity reaching 4.8×1017Bq. Imperfection of the radiohydrogeoecological monitoring system in the affected area within the “Shelter” Object and the 3rd ChNPP Unit, sites for temporary localization and disposal of radioactive waste in the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone, in particular, due to man-made changes in the hydrogeological regime, leads to inaccurate assessment of the radioactive contamination and forecaste of the quality of the underground drinking water supply sources. One of the most pressing modern radioecological problems is the accumulation of Americium-241 in the natural environment and its exposure affects. Now the content of this radionuclide outside the destroyed power unit is almost equal to that of 90Sr and will increase to the middle of this century. At the same time, its radiobiological efficiency is much higher than the gamma and beta radiation of the dose-generating 137Cs and 90Sr. The strategy for overcoming the consequences of the Chornobyl catastrophe should be comprehensive and aimed to addressing humanitarian, environmental, technological, international and political issues in complex.
Key words: Chornobyl Catastrophe, overcoming strategy, “Shelter” Object, radioactive contamination, lava-like fuel-containing materials, radioecological issues, radiohydrogeoecological monitoring, radioactive waste disposal and temporary storage facilities, Americium-241.
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