UDC 550.4• 📖 Issue 1(29) / 2019 • 6-12 pages
Geohìm. tehnog. (2019) 1:5-12
In memory of the Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine E.V. Sobotovich
We live on a turn in an amazing era in the history of mankind
W. Vernadsky (Essays on Geochemistry)
The introductory paper for the updated Collection of Scientific Papers of Institute of Environmental Geochemistry is devoted to the historical aspects of arising and development of modern scientific problems in the field of Geochemistry of Technogenesis. This direction studies a set of chemical and technical processes caused by human activity that result in the redistribution of chemical elements on the planet. It is based on V.І. Vernadsky’s modern geochemistry that studies the evolution processes of the chemical composition of the Earth’s crust and was later developed in the works of O.Ye. Fersman. Technological revolution resulted in formation of a new geological force – the Man and caused significant redistribution of chemical elements in the Earth’s crust owing to anthropogenic activity. The zone of technogenesis reaches the lower boundary of the biosphere in the Earth’s crust. Human-induced emission of some chemical elements (Pb, Se) is more than 100 times their natural emission. The volume of the Earth’s crust matter involved in the technogenesis processes is an order of magnitude higher than that of the sedimentation during Phanerozoj, which conduces to the disruption of the thermodynamic quasi-equilibrium formed during 4.5 billion years. This direction became particularly important in the second half of the twentieth century because of insertion of a number of artificial substances into the biosphere that did not exist in the nature before. The modern problems of geochemistry of technogenesis lie in the field of the global anthropogenic cycle, namely “energy – wastes”. In a broad sense, wastes are everything resulted from our activity on production and use of the energy. The rate of accumulation of the wastes in the biosphere three times exceeds the rate of sedimentation in Phanerozoj. The main ways to overcome the antagonism between the technosphere and biosphere consist in global introduction of the closed production cycle and the treatment of the already accumulated wastes to the state friendly for the natural biogeochemical cycles. The basic principle of the waste management should be the possibility of waste utilization by future generations at the appropriate stage of the technological development. Today the ecological stabilization of the biosphere must become the main priority for the scientific researches. .
Keywords: geochemistry, technogenesis, energy, wastes, biosphere, technosphere, technological revolution.
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